# GCU HLT362 week3 Questions

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GCU HLT362 week3 Questions to Be Graded Exercises 16 and 17

Statistics for Nursing Research: A Workbook for

Evidence-Based Practice, 2nd Edition

Exercise 16: Understanding Independent Samples t-test

Questions to Be Graded

1. What do

degrees of freedom (df) mean?

A. It is a

mathematical concept that describes the freedom of a particular score’s value

independent of the other existing scores’ values and the sum of the scores.

B. It is a

mathematical concept that describes the freedom of a particular score’s value

to vary on the other existing scores’ values and the sum of the scores.

Answer: Choose an

item.

Canbulat et?al. (2015) did not provide the dfs in their

study. Why is it important to know the df for a t ratio?

A. The df for

t-tests allows us to look up t ratios on a statistical table that includes a

distribution of the critical values of t to determine the significance of the t

values obtained in a study.

B. The df for

t-tests allows us to look up t ratios on a statistical table that includes a

distribution of the critical values of t to determine the sign (positive or

negative) of the t values obtained in a study.

Answer: Choose an

item.

Using the df formula, calculate the df for this study.

A. 87

B. 88

C. 174

D. 176

Answer: Choose an item.

2. What are the

means and standard deviations (SDs) for age for the Buzzy intervention and

control groups?

Mean±SD for the Buzzy experimental group and Mean±SD for the

control group were:

A. 8.05±1.51;

8.31±1.69.

B. 8.15±1.51;

8.41±1.69.

C. 8.05±1.51;

8.51±1.69.

D. 8.25±1.51;

8.61±1.69.

Answer: Choose an

item.

What statistical analysis is conducted to determine the

difference in means for age for the two groups? Was this an appropriate

analysis technique? Provide a rationale for your answer.

A. Independent

sample t-test. Appropriate.

B. Independent

sample t-test. Not appropriate.

C. Paired sample

t-test. Appropriate.

D. Paired sample

t-test. Not appropriate.

Answer: Choose an

item.

3. What are the t

value and p value for age? What do these results mean?

A. The t=-3.459 and p value=0.005. A significant

difference in age between the two treatment groups.

B. The t=-2.489

and p value=0.013. A significant difference in age between the two treatment

groups.

C. The t=-1.489

and p value=0.136. No significant difference in age between the two treatment

groups.

Answer: Choose an

item.

4. What are the

assumptions for conducting the independent samples t-test?

A. The variable is

normally distributed.

B. The dependent

variable(s) is (are) measured at the interval or ratio levels.

C. The two groups

have equal variance.

D. All observations

within each group are independent

E. All of the

above.

Answer: Choose an

item.

5. Are the groups in

this study independent or dependent? Provide a rationale for your answer.

A. The groups in this study are independent since the study

participants were randomly assigned to either the intervention group or the

control group.

B. The groups in this study are not independent since the

study participants were not randomly assigned to either the intervention group

or the control group.

Answer: Choose an

item.

6. What is the null

hypothesis for procedural self-reported pain measured with the Wong Baker Faces

Scale (WBFS) for the two groups?

A. There is no difference in procedural self-reported pain

with the WBFS between the Buzzy intervention and control groups of school age

children.

B. There is a difference in procedural self-reported pain

with the WBFS between the Buzzy intervention and control groups of school age

children.

Answer: Choose an

item.

Was this null hypothesis accepted or rejected in this study?

Provide a rationale for your answer.

A. Accepted (or not

rejected).

B. Rejected.

Answer: Choose an

item.

7. Should a

Bonferroni procedure be conducted in this study? Provide a rationale for your

answer.

A. Yes, in order to

control Type I error, because there were multiple t-tests performed.

B. No, because no

multiple tests were performed.

Answer: Choose an

item.

8. What variable has

a result of t = ?6.135, p = 0.000?

A. Procedural self-reported pain with WBFS

B. Procedural self-reported pain with VAS

C. Procedural anxiety level

Answer: Choose an

item.

What does the result mean?

A. There is a

significant difference between the two groups in the variable of interest.

B. There is no

significant difference between the two groups in the variable of interest.

Answer: Choose an

item.

9. In your opinion,

is it an expected or unexpected finding that both t values on Table 2 were

found to be statistically significant. Provide a rationale for your answer.

A. It would be

expected

B. It would be

unexpected

that if both WBFS and VAS are reliable and valid methods of

measuring pain that the results would be consistent and in this case

statistically significant for both measurement methods.

Answer: Choose an

item.

10. Describe one

potential clinical benefit for pediatric patients to receive the Buzzy

intervention that combined cold and vibration during IV insertion.

A. Decreased pain

and anxiety levels.

B.

Nonpharmacological

C. fast-acting,

inexpensive, and easy to use

D. A & B

E. A & B &

C

Answer: Choose an

item.

Statistics for Nursing Research: A Workbook for

Evidence-Based Practice, 2nd Edition

Exercise 17: Understanding Paired or Dependent Samples

t-test

1. What are the

assumptions for conducting a paired or dependent samples t-test in a study?

A. The distribution

of scores is normal or approximately normal

B. The dependent

variable is measured at interval or ratio levels

C. Repeated measures

from one group of subjects where they serve as their own control

D. The differences

between the paired scores are independent

E. The repeated

measures for one subject are independent

F. A to D

G. A to E

Answer: Choose an

item.

Which of these assumptions do you think were met by the

Lindseth et?al. (2014) study?

A. A to D in the

previous sub-question.

B. A to E in in

the previous sub-question.

Answer: Choose an

item.

2. In the

introduction, Lindseth et?al. (2014) described a “2-week washout between

diets.” What does this mean? Why is this important?

A. A period to

clear their bodies of the level of aspartame consumed over the previous 8

days. It is important because the

effects of the first invention can be reduced or removed so that they do not

affect the outcome of the second intervention.

B. A period to

wait for the effect of aspartame consumed over the previous 8 days. It is

important because the effects of the first invention can be considered and

evaluated again for the second intervention.

Answer: Choose an

item.

3. What is the

paired t-test value for mood (irritability) between the participants’

consumption of high- versus low-aspartame diets? Is this result statistically

significant? Provide a rationale for your answer.

A. 3.2. Significant, because p<0.05.

B. 3.2. Not significant, because p is not <0.05.

C. 3.4. Significant, because p<0.05.

D. 3.4. Not significant, because p is not <0.05.

Answer: Choose an

item.

4. State the null

hypothesis for mood (irritability) that was tested in this study

A. There is a

difference in mood (irritability) for the participants’ after consumption of

the low- versus high-aspartame diets.

B. There is no

difference in mood (irritability) for the participants’ after consumption of

the low- versus high-aspartame diets.

Answer: Choose an

item.

Was this hypothesis accepted or rejected? Provide a

rationale for your answer.

A. Accepted,

because p<0.05 (significant result)

B. Accepted,

because p>=0.05

C. Rejected,

because p<0.05 (significant result)

D. Rejected,

because p>=0.05

Answer: Choose an

item.

5. Which t value

in Table 2 represents the greatest relative or standardized difference between

the high- and low-aspartame diets?

t value for spatial orientation

B. t value for

working memory

C. t value for

mood

D. t value for

depression

Answer: Choose an

item.

Is this t value statistically significant? Provide a

rationale for your answer.

A. Yes, because it is less than ?=0.05.

B. Yes, because it

is greater than ?=0.05.

C. No, because it is less than ?=0.05.

D. No, because it

is greater than ?=0.05.

Answer: Choose an

item.

6. Discuss why

the larger t values are more likely to be statistically significant.

A. The larger the

differences in the variable, the larger the t value.

B. The smaller the

difference in the variable, the larger the t value.

Answer: Choose an

item.

7. Discuss the

meaning of the results regarding depression for this study.

A. Depression is

significantly higher after consuming a high-aspartame diet than after consuming

a lower aspartame diet.

B. Depression is

not significantly higher after consuming a high-aspartame diet than after

consuming a lower aspartame diet.

Answer: Choose an

item.

What is the clinical importance of this result?

A. More Americans

are consuming diet drinks and food that often contain aspartame.

The more aspartame they consume, the more likely they are to

experience depression. Nurses need to know there is a link of aspartame

consumption to depression and educate their patients.

B. More Americans

are consuming diet drinks and food that often contain aspartame.

The amount of aspartame they consume has no association with

depression. Nurses need to know there is no link of aspartame consumption to

depression and no need to waste time for educating their patients.

Answer: Choose an

item.

8. What is the

smallest, paired t-test value in Table 2? Why do you think the smaller t values

are not statistically significant?

A. 1.2. Relative

small difference.

B. 1.2. Relative

large difference.

C. 1.5. Relative

small difference.

D. 1.5. Relative

large difference.

Answer: Choose an

item.

9. Discuss the

clinical importance of these study results about the consumption of aspartame.

Document your answer with a relevant source.

Answer: Choose an item.

10. Are these study

findings related to the consumption of high- and low-aspartame diets ready for

implementation in practice? Provide a rationale for your answer.

A. The findings are

not ready for implementation because the sample size is not large enough and

safety is not well understood. However, they do have implications for practice

because of possible health outcomes after consuming higher amount of aspartame.

B. The findings

are ready for implementation because the sample size is large enough and safety

is well understood. The findings also have implications for practice because of

possible health outcomes after consuming higher amount of aspartame.

Answer: Choose an

item.

Please do not add or delete a row or column for the

following grading table. If you have a problem with the drop-down lists, then

you can enter your answers in the second column. If you use the drop-down lists, the instructor

will update your answers in the table. Thanks

Question

Your answer

Correct answer

Possible points

Your points

16. 1

1.5

1

1.5

1

1

2

2

2

2

3

4

4

4

5

4

6

2

6

2

7

4

8

2

8

2

9

4

10

4

17.1

2

1

2

2

4

3

4

4

2

4

2

5

2

5

2

6

4

7

2

7

2

8

4

9

4

10

4

Total

80

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