GCU HLT362 week3 Questions

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GCU HLT362 week3 Questions to Be Graded Exercises 16 and 17

Statistics for Nursing Research: A Workbook for
Evidence-Based Practice, 2nd Edition

Exercise 16: Understanding Independent Samples t-test

Questions to Be Graded

1. What do
degrees of freedom (df) mean?

A. It is a
mathematical concept that describes the freedom of a particular score’s value
independent of the other existing scores’ values and the sum of the scores.

B. It is a
mathematical concept that describes the freedom of a particular score’s value
to vary on the other existing scores’ values and the sum of the scores.

Answer: Choose an
item.

Canbulat et?al. (2015) did not provide the dfs in their
study. Why is it important to know the df for a t ratio?

A. The df for
t-tests allows us to look up t ratios on a statisti­cal table that includes a
distribution of the critical values of t to determine the significance of the t
values obtained in a study.

B. The df for
t-tests allows us to look up t ratios on a statisti­cal table that includes a
distribution of the critical values of t to determine the sign (positive or
negative) of the t values obtained in a study.

Answer: Choose an
item.

Using the df formula, calculate the df for this study.

A. 87

B. 88

C. 174

D. 176

Answer: Choose an item.

2. What are the
means and standard deviations (SDs) for age for the Buzzy intervention and
control groups?

Mean±SD for the Buzzy experimental group and Mean±SD for the
control group were:

A. 8.05±1.51;
8.31±1.69.

B. 8.15±1.51;
8.41±1.69.

C. 8.05±1.51;
8.51±1.69.

D. 8.25±1.51;
8.61±1.69.

Answer: Choose an
item.

What statistical analysis is conducted to determine the
difference in means for age for the two groups? Was this an appropriate
analysis technique? Provide a rationale for your answer.

A. Independent
sample t-test. Appropriate.

B. Independent
sample t-test. Not appropriate.

C. Paired sample
t-test. Appropriate.

D. Paired sample
t-test. Not appropriate.

Answer: Choose an
item.

3. What are the t
value and p value for age? What do these results mean?

A. The t=-3.459 and p value=0.005. A significant
difference in age between the two treatment groups.

B. The t=-2.489
and p value=0.013. A significant difference in age between the two treatment
groups.

C. The t=-1.489
and p value=0.136. No significant difference in age between the two treatment
groups.

Answer: Choose an
item.

4. What are the
assumptions for conducting the independent samples t-test?

A. The variable is
normally distributed.

B. The dependent
variable(s) is (are) measured at the interval or ratio levels.

C. The two groups
have equal variance.

D. All observations
within each group are independent

E. All of the
above.

Answer: Choose an
item.

5. Are the groups in
this study independent or dependent? Provide a rationale for your answer.

A. The groups in this study are independent since the study
participants were randomly assigned to either the intervention group or the
control group.

B. The groups in this study are not independent since the
study participants were not randomly assigned to either the intervention group
or the control group.

Answer: Choose an
item.

6. What is the null
hypothesis for procedural self-reported pain measured with the Wong Baker Faces
Scale (WBFS) for the two groups?

A. There is no difference in procedural self-reported pain
with the WBFS between the Buzzy intervention and control groups of school age
children.

B. There is a difference in procedural self-reported pain
with the WBFS between the Buzzy intervention and control groups of school age
children.

Answer: Choose an
item.

Was this null hypothesis accepted or rejected in this study?
Provide a rationale for your answer.

A. Accepted (or not
rejected).

B. Rejected.

Answer: Choose an
item.

7. Should a
Bonferroni procedure be conducted in this study? Provide a rationale for your
answer.

A. Yes, in order to
control Type I error, because there were multiple t-tests performed.

B. No, because no
multiple tests were performed.

Answer: Choose an
item.

8. What variable has
a result of t = ?6.135, p = 0.000?

A. Procedural self-reported pain with WBFS

B. Procedural self-reported pain with VAS

C. Procedural anxiety level

Answer: Choose an
item.

What does the result mean?

A. There is a
significant difference between the two groups in the variable of interest.

B. There is no
significant difference between the two groups in the variable of interest.

Answer: Choose an
item.

9. In your opinion,
is it an expected or unexpected finding that both t values on Table 2 were
found to be statistically significant. Provide a rationale for your answer.

A. It would be
expected

B. It would be
unexpected

that if both WBFS and VAS are reli­able and valid methods of
measuring pain that the results would be consistent and in this case
statistically significant for both measurement methods.

Answer: Choose an
item.

10. Describe one
potential clinical benefit for pediatric patients to receive the Buzzy
intervention that combined cold and vibration during IV insertion.

A. Decreased pain
and anxiety levels.

B.
Nonpharmacological

C. fast-acting,
inexpensive, and easy to use

D. A & B

E. A & B &
C

Answer: Choose an
item.

 

 

 

Statistics for Nursing Research: A Workbook for
Evidence-Based Practice, 2nd Edition

Exercise 17: Understanding Paired or Dependent Samples
t-test

1. What are the
assumptions for conducting a paired or dependent samples t-test in a study?

A. The distribution
of scores is normal or approximately normal

B. The dependent
variable is measured at interval or ratio levels

C. Repeated measures
from one group of subjects where they serve as their own control

D. The differences
between the paired scores are independent

E. The repeated
measures for one subject are independent

F. A to D

G. A to E

Answer: Choose an
item.

Which of these assumptions do you think were met by the
Lindseth et?al. (2014) study?

A. A to D in the
previous sub-question.

B. A to E in in
the previous sub-question.

Answer: Choose an
item.

2. In the
introduction, Lindseth et?al. (2014) described a “2-week washout between
diets.” What does this mean? Why is this important?

A. A period to
clear their bodies of the level of aspartame consumed over the previous 8
days. It is important because the
effects of the first invention can be reduced or removed so that they do not
affect the outcome of the second intervention.

B. A period to
wait for the effect of aspartame consumed over the previous 8 days. It is
important because the effects of the first invention can be considered and
evaluated again for the second intervention.

Answer: Choose an
item.

3. What is the
paired t-test value for mood (irritability) between the participants’
consumption of high- versus low-aspartame diets? Is this result statistically
significant? Provide a rationale for your answer.

A. 3.2. Significant, because p<0.05.

B. 3.2. Not significant, because p is not <0.05.

C. 3.4. Significant, because p<0.05.

D. 3.4. Not significant, because p is not <0.05.

Answer: Choose an
item.

4. State the null
hypothesis for mood (irritability) that was tested in this study

A. There is a
difference in mood (irritability) for the participants’ after consumption of
the low- versus high-aspartame diets.

B. There is no
difference in mood (irritability) for the participants’ after consumption of
the low- versus high-aspartame diets.

Answer: Choose an
item.

Was this hypothesis accepted or rejected? Provide a
rationale for your answer.

A. Accepted,
because p<0.05 (significant result)

B. Accepted,
because p>=0.05

C. Rejected,
because p<0.05 (significant result)

D. Rejected,
because p>=0.05

Answer: Choose an
item.

5. Which t value
in Table 2 represents the greatest relative or standardized difference between
the high- and low-aspartame diets?

t value for spatial orientation

B. t value for
working memory

C. t value for
mood

D. t value for
depression

Answer: Choose an
item.

Is this t value statistically significant? Provide a
rationale for your answer.

A. Yes, because it is less than ?=0.05.

B. Yes, because it
is greater than ?=0.05.

C. No, because it is less than ?=0.05.

D. No, because it
is greater than ?=0.05.

Answer: Choose an
item.

6. Discuss why
the larger t values are more likely to be statistically significant.

A. The larger the
differences in the variable, the larger the t value.

B. The smaller the
difference in the variable, the larger the t value.

Answer: Choose an
item.

7. Discuss the
meaning of the results regarding depression for this study.

A. Depression is
significantly higher after consuming a high-aspartame diet than after consuming
a lower aspartame diet.

B. Depression is
not significantly higher after consuming a high-aspartame diet than after
consuming a lower aspartame diet.

Answer: Choose an
item.

What is the clinical importance of this result?

A. More Americans
are consuming diet drinks and food that often contain aspartame.

The more aspartame they consume, the more likely they are to
experience depression. Nurses need to know there is a link of aspartame
consumption to depression and educate their patients.

B. More Americans
are consuming diet drinks and food that often contain aspartame.

The amount of aspartame they consume has no association with
depression. Nurses need to know there is no link of aspartame consumption to
depression and no need to waste time for educating their patients.

Answer: Choose an
item.

8. What is the
smallest, paired t-test value in Table 2? Why do you think the smaller t values
are not statistically significant?

A. 1.2. Relative
small difference.

B. 1.2. Relative
large difference.

C. 1.5. Relative
small difference.

D. 1.5. Relative
large difference.

Answer: Choose an
item.

9. Discuss the
clinical importance of these study results about the consumption of aspartame.
Document your answer with a relevant source.

Answer: Choose an item.

10. Are these study
findings related to the consumption of high- and low-aspartame diets ready for
implementation in practice? Provide a rationale for your answer.

A. The findings are
not ready for implementation because the sample size is not large enough and
safety is not well understood. However, they do have implications for practice
because of possible health outcomes after consuming higher amount of aspartame.

B. The findings
are ready for implementation because the sample size is large enough and safety
is well understood. The findings also have implications for practice because of
possible health outcomes after consuming higher amount of aspartame.

Answer: Choose an
item.

Please do not add or delete a row or column for the
following grading table. If you have a problem with the drop-down lists, then
you can enter your answers in the second column. If you use the drop-down lists, the instructor
will update your answers in the table. Thanks

Question

Your answer

Correct answer

Possible points

Your points

16. 1

1.5

1

1.5

1

1

2

2

2

2

3

4

4

4

5

4

6

2

6

2

7

4

8

2

8

2

9

4

10

4

17.1

2

1

2

2

4

3

4

4

2

4

2

5

2

5

2

6

4

7

2

7

2

8

4

9

4

10

4

Total

80

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