Unit 8 – Promoting Public Health Assignment 2

Unit 8 Promoting public health – assignment 2: campaigns

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Unit 8 – Promoting Public Health Assignment 2 Campaigns to promote public health. Distinction section. D2 Justify the approaches used to promote and protect health and prevent disease in a selected health promotion campaign. D3 Evaluate the success of a specific public health campaign in encouraging behaviour change in relation to health. D4 Evaluate how far a recent health promotion campaign met the aims of public health policy through the strategies and approaches used to improve the health of a demographic area.  

Unit 8 – Promoting Public Health Completed Example

Unit 8 – promoting public health Statistics A1  In the UK we have the national have service and Public Health England because in the 1940s after World War Two soldiers started to come back with major injuries and mental health needs. The government understood that they couldn’t simply insist that they pay for medical treatment as they didn’t have the money or job to. There was also growing concern about epidemics such as measles or influenza arising due to lack of information, technology and care for transmitted illnesses. Knowing this they decided to form the National Health Service. The Beveridge Report aimed to tackle ‘squalor, want, idleness and disease’ beveridges ideas of compulsory contributions to cover social costs laid the foundation of the post war welfare  state.1. The aims of public health policy are planning national provision of healthcare and promoting the health of the population such as One You. They aimed to influence you into realising how you can improve your health through a quick quiz. They then give show you what you need to improve and ideas on how to improve. The National Health Service keeps track of the population in many different ways such as tracking if there is a spike in any transmittable diseases such as influenza as well as the general health of the population. This is pivotal then attempting to control any diseases in the future. In society, specifically England, there is a huge variety of different people from religious beliefs to the amount of money they earn. This has the possibility to result in unequal treatment of people.  The Public Health Service aims to protect individuals, groups and communities from environmental hazards with a thorough plan that would include monitoring factories, public places and restaurants. Preventing any illnesses or injuries from occurring. They also prevent communicable diseases from spreading by raising awareness to have regular check ups as its cheaper to check and treat minor cases of a communicable disease rather than major cases. When there is a national health problem, such as a jump in influenza cases, they would ensure that the public is notified so that they can have appropriate treatments. Especially during a jump in cases, developing programs to screen for a early diagnosis and promoting it can prevent a major outbreak. A2 Promoting a healthy lifestyle comes in different form including posters and advertisements showing how to improve yourself some popular ones are five portions of fruit and vegetables a day and change for life. Both of these improve your health and change for life improves your exercise levels in order to lose weight in a healthy way. Change for life is ore in depth with your health by showing you have to start cutting sugar and salt intake, healthy alternatives and how to start effectively exercising. They also aim to catch diseases early reducing the amount of expensive treatments with cheaper screenings. These screening include cervical cancer smears, prostate exam and a mammogram (breast cancer screening). This saves money for other treatments and care. The national provision is a set of policies and guidelines from the Government that are there to ensure the quality and equality of care in all providers of Early Years Services e.g. schools, nurseries, child minders, social services, hospitals etc. It includes: The Childcare Act 2006.

 

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A4 The department of health aims to help people live better for longer. They fund health care in England and make sure people have the support, care and treatment necessary. Age concern is the title banner of a number of charitable organisations specifically concerned with the needs and interests of all older people. The British heart foundation fund research into causes, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Herat and circulatory diseases. Action on Smoking and Health is the name of a number of autonomous pressure groups that seek to publicise the risks associated with tobacco smoking and campaign for greater restrictions. The World Health Organisation is concerned with international public health. The United Nations is an international organisation committed to maintaining international pace and security, developing friendly relations among nations and promoting social progress. The National Institute for Health and care excellence provides national guidance and advice to improve health an social care. Cancer research UK is a cancer research and awareness charity.

Hull Report Kingston Upon Hull, usually shortened to Hull, is a port city in East Yorkshire. This city was found in the 12th century. Hulls history of usage goes from a market city, military supply port to an industrial metropolis.3. Although it’s a large city with a university it is considered quite a rough area. This is shown as its rate of crimes per 100,000 is 39.9 whilst the average is 23.7. This negative result carries on with almost all other indicators. On average in England the life expectancy is 79.5 for men and 83.1 for women, in Hull however, this lowers 76.3 for men and 80.1 for women. Childhood obesity in Hull is 23.6 whilst on average it is 20.1. This can be explained easily, as Hull is a city access to fast food is just a quick walk, or drive, away. School, work and friends are all the same. They have easier access to everything they may need than rural residents do. Resulting in the incline. The amount of parents breast feeding their children is 61.2 in Hull verses the 74.5 on average. Breastfeeding gives the child much needed immunity, before they are given vaccines. The immunity can play a part is the child not developing allergies. Is they aren’t breast feed a mother who is eating peanuts then the child may be more likely to develop an allergy for it. Sexually transmitted diseases in England 794 per 100,000 whilst in Hull it is 906. This shows that sexual education in Hull is severely limited resulting people not taking proper precautions before having sex or not understanding why or how they should use a barrier contraceptive. This also correlates with number of under eighteen conceptions being 30.6, almost double the national average of 18.8 and the smoking at time of delivery is 20.4, 10.8 is average. This shows a very clear misunderstanding of sex and pregnancy and, unfortunately, how to raise a child. Infant mortality is 4.7 out of an average of 3.9 and obesity is childhood as said before is 23.6. This higher level of infant mortality and obesity shows that they don’t have the correct support and education when they end up pregnant to successfully look after a child. Mental Health is Hull is shown it be an issue as stays in hospital for self harm is at 284.6 per 100,000, 99.3 more than the average. Mental health awareness needs to be more important in hull. The black report 1980 was a report based on the inequalities of  health based on wealth and social class. Hulls strategies in order to improve the rate of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) include Conifer. This service provides information on multiple STD related topics men’s and women’s health, pregnancy, LGBT, contraception and sexual assault, to educate those in Hull. Conifer also has a service that allows you to order free condoms if you live in Hull. Conifer has an app as to allow you to read the information at anytime, anywhere.2. Hull has written a report about Sexually Transmitted infections (4) around North Yorkshire. This report highlights that in 2016 there were 36,300 new sexually transmitted infection diagnoses in the North Yorkshire and Humber area. syphilis increased by 84%, gonorrhoea by 1%, chlamydia by 1% and genital herpes by 2%. Genital warts decreased by 9%. These rates of increase on the five biggest STI’s show that they aren’t being managed properly nor effectively. These pieces of data can be used by Hull to address the sexually transmitted illnesses and diseases problems that are happening.

 

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Factors affecting health Factors in Hull show that the socio-economic status on education are lower than average with only 48.2% gaining five or more GCSEs whilst the average is 57.8%.(5). By helping students improve their GCSE grades we can lower than chance of the students becoming homeless in later life and improve their chance of going onto further education or apprenticeship. This can then give them better understanding of health and how to improve theirs. The amount of homeless people in Hull is 290. showing that Hulls housing isn’t affordable for everyone and connecting to the people gaining five or more GCSEs it shows that it could effect people negatively. By lowering the amount of homeless people and getting them into work Hull would have an increased workforce, therefore improving Hulls economic status and making everything a little more affordable. In North Yorkshire rates of cystic fibrosis admissions are lower than London showing we have fewer cases on cystic fibrosis, we also have an average mortality rate, lower than Scotland and the East of England. The percentage of obese children aged 10-11 in Hull is 23.6%. The average is 20.1% therefore Hulls children have a higher risk of heart disease, high blood pressure and cholesterol and cancer. Addressing this obesity issue would lower hospital emissions sending less money and would prevent public health issues in the future as the current children would understand the risks and would look after themselves and their children better. Change 4 Life Task 2 My health promotion campaign is change for life. The health promotor of this campaign is the NHS. They screen children in primary for their height and weight to identity who is at most at risk of obesity and then they target those children further by giving them a change for life pack containing games, meal ideas and occasionally a step counter. Both of these again to source the problem directly and then straight away try to reduce it immediately. Their cartoon adverts are also highly effective at encouraging children and parents to live a healthier life as they are brightly coloured and fun to watch, the animation people are also genderless to prevent it seeming more one sided, because these cartoon will catch children’s and therefore parents attention everyone will see how they can benefit. It has addressed inequalities by providing those on low incomes vouchers for healthy food as they understand that nutritious food is more expensive than an average can afford. Change for life influences the school meal guidelines in order to ensure that the meals are as healthy and nutritious as possible. This influence also makes sure that the snacks provided in school are healthy and not full of sugar. The sugar tax puts a charge of 24p on drinks containing 8g of sugar per 100ml and 18p a litre on those with 5-8g of sugar per 100ml. The tax aims to lower the amount of sugary drinks are bought, therefore lowering the rate of obesity. The screening program in particular weights the child and then measures their height to work out with a BMI chart to work out if they are healthy, overweight, obese and even underweight. This information is then sent to the parents and to change for life. Parents are encouraged to take this information as a guide into how much the child needs help. Change 4 Life uses the Idea of an eat well plate to base ether change for life campaign

 

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C3 The role of field epidemiology in controlling pandemic influenza Preparedness and response. Flu vaccines cause antibodies to development in the body about two weeks after vaccination. These anti-bodies provide protection against infection with viruses that are in the vaccine. The seasonal flu vaccine protects against the influenza viruses that research has indicated will be most common during the up coming season. People should get vaccinated if they are over 65, you are pregnant, have certain medical conditions, are living in long term residential care or any other long stay care, are a carer for an elderly or disabled person, a primary school child. The first step is to make the organism that produces the disease, which is called a pathogen. The pathogen is a virus or a bacterium. Viruses and bacteria can be mass produced in the laboratory by infected cells grown in tissue culture. After the vaccination you may get a mild fever, fatigue, shivering, pain around the area and stiff muscles for a day or so. If the symptoms get worse or last longer you should seek medical advise.   D1 An effective advertisement campaign would require understanding who is being targeted versus who they want to be targeted. This can be done by knowing when and where your adverts are being shown. Having a child based sugar smart campaign after Hollyoaks at 10pm would be ineffective advertising as children probably aren’t watching. A more effective advertising would be to have it advertised after Art Attack and Horrid Henry. This would allow children to be exposed to the message of healthy eating properly. This also goes for adult change for life messages such as minimising alcohol consumption. These adverts would start after watershed. The objectives of these campaigns is to inform people about how to eat healthy and live healthier. This is done by using colourful and fun cartoon people that are neutral in every way such as skin colour, gender and weight. This allows the message to be the main focal point and not who the characters are. Change 4 Life’s target audience are those who need to improve their health and wellbeing. They target these people by showing advertisements that show how an improved lifestyle can improve you such as showing that a reduced amount of food you eat for meals can make you slimmer and improve your athleticism. Change 4 life’s approach to their media campaigns is that the characters they use are neutral in every way other than their voice if they talk. This prevents any possible discrimination or stereotypes. When making a marketing campaign aimed at peopled health, wellbeing and life choices you need to consider the ethical side and how people will respond to possible criticism about their lifestyle and changing their lifestyle positively. Change 4 Life had 413,466 families join in the first twelve months. After six months 44,833 families were still involved actively in Change 4 Life. Out of everyone who joined 1.9 million responses were received in a one year period. D2 When someone aims to change their lifestyle they may find starting difficult for a myriad of reasons. Unhealthy people are usually from deprived areas as they have to by cheaper food that is more calorific and sugary than their wealthier counterparts. These people would then find nutritional food harder to afford as these foods are far more expensive and less calorie dense. Exercise facilities also cost money, usually a monthly payment. Those with little to no spare money would not be able to afford to go to those facilities because of this. This means that along with the unhealthy food and lack of exercise they are far more luckily to be unhealthy themselves and make changing a challenge. To support these people they need to be provided with access to these. This can be provided through food vouchers that allow them to buy healthy food such as fruit and vegetables cheaper. Change 4 Life provides vouchers to students at primary school for families to use. Community halls can provide cheap exercise classes for the community. Individuals acceptance towards change means that although some will be willing to change others will be less so. Others will be indifferent and feel no need to change. This will be especially prominent if someone is naturally slim or have had minimal known adverse effects to their lifestyle. The amount of recourses available to each individual differs depending on where they live. Someone who lives in London will have far more resources for healthy living, especially as  London is notoriously bad for your respiratory health. Whilst the small village, Dufftown,  in Scotland will have far less resources or accessibility to resources. Different lifestyle factors will lessen the amount of change people are willing to make. People who regularly smoke will be addicted to nicotine and so change for them will be far more difficult. They would need large amounts of support to try and encourage them to make the change last and stay. Those with poor diets and exercise may simply not feel the need to change as they are use to what they are eating and so are numb to their actions. If Change 4 Life’s adverts are shown every ad break then the public watching these adverts will not bother listening to the message. This would lower the rate of participation as less people deem it necessary.

 

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D3 The health belief model describes that people would begin to change their attitudes toward their health if they were shown the negative effects of their lifestyle causing health problems. This would cause them to change. However if people don’t believe they are at serious risk they will continue their unhealthy lifestyle in the belief that their health wont be negatively impacted. Change 4 life would use this to show people how their health will infect be negatively effected by their lifestyle choice such as eating large packets of sweets regularly. They would show that this increases you weight gain which in turn can cause heart disease. Theory of reasoned action is based on people’s behaviour and the situations that effect it. An example of this is a students attitude towards heavily drinking, these may be favourable or unfavourable beliefs. A great amount of attitudes someone has to drinking is learned from their parents or education. This will effect the students desire to change if they drink heavily. If they are used to being around people who drink heavily then they will see that as their own norm and so will resist changing themselves. Change 4 life would need to fine a way to change people’s perceptions on what is and isn’t healthy. This could be through teaching children from a young age health living with talks and packs. The theory of planned behaviour is used to predict a persons heath behaviour. ‘The theory believes that behavioural intentions depend on motivation and the ability to control their behaviour.’ Change 4 life would need to understand how motivation and the ability to control their behaviour will effect the success rate of each person in order for change for life to create a plan that will fit each individual well enough for them to be successful. The stages of change model describes peoples readiness to change with six stages. Precontemplation which has four groups; reluctant this is where the individual does not see their problem, rebellious where the individual wants to make their own decisions, resigned the individual has given up changing and rationalising the individual has answers for why the don’t need to change. Contemplation, in this stage the individual is willing to change but has not started to. Determination, this is the stage where the individual is sure they want to change but without proper plans will fail. Action, the individual starts putting their plans to action. Maintenance, this stage usually takes three to six months of constant work on your change. Termination is the final stage at this point you has confidentiality made a permanent change in your life and so can end the six stages. Change for life would need to use this to understand the support necessary for each individual the work with so that they change permanently and with the most effect. Social learning theory shows that children from a young age copy those around them. This copying may come from anyone around them such as parents, friends and teachers. These influences can be positive or negative. Children will imitate anything they see regardless of how appropriate it is. This can impact them as if they have always seen their parent smoke they will grow up believing it to be normal and safe. Change 4 life would need to teach the individual that thee negative action they do is in fact hazardous to their health.

 

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D4 Th government standards for school lunches outline many different regulations for heathy eating in school. Each meal must contain a portion of fruit or  vegetables, a portion of dairy and a portion of meat, fish, egg or beans daily. Food high in sugar cannot be given more than twice a week. Snacks provided to students must also be along side fresh fruit. Bread must be available everyday. Marketing mix can be used by people trying to raise awareness around health promotion but influencing people. Two-way communication can be used to express people’s feelings about their health and how they can improve it. In 2007 a smoking ban was passed in England that made it illegal to smoke in enclosed work places as well as hospitals and schools. This was to discourage smoking as well as lower rates of second hand smoke. Drink wise aims to remote behavioural changes in those who drink. Aiming to lower or completely eliminate alcohol from people’s diets. They do this through education and informing. In 199 the UK labour government launched a 10 year teenage pregnancy strategy to address the record high rates. Due to this successful strategy teen pregnancy rates have fallen by 51%.

 

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Bibliography

Change for life for A2 The Beveridge Report aimed to tackle ‘squalor, want, idleness and disease’ beveridges ideas of compulsory contributions to cover social costs laid the foundation of the post war welfare  state.1. From – https://www.theguardian.com/society-professionals/2014/jul/07/-sp-beveridge-report-revisited-where-now-for-the-welfare-state https://conifersexhealth.co.uk  .2. Kingston Upon Hull, usually shortened to Hull, is a port city in East Yorkshire. This city was found in the 12th century. Hulls history of usage goes from a market city, military supply port to an industrial metropolis.3. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingston_upon_Hull https://fingertips.phe.org.uk/profile/health-profiles/data#page/0/gid/1938132701/pat/6/par/E12000003/ati/102/are/E06000010/iid/91306/age/182/sex/4 The hull sexually transited infections report for North Yorkshire (4) 36,300 new sexually transmitted infection diagnoses in the North Yorkshire and Humber area. syphilis increased by 84%, gonorrhoea by 1%, chlamydia by 1% and genital herpes by 2%. Genital warts decreased by 9%. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/673975/sexually_transmitted_infections_in_Yorkshire_and_Humber_2016_data.pdf Factors in Hull show that the socio-economic status on education are lower than average with only 48.2% gaining five or more GCSEs whilst the average is 57.8%.(5). – https://fingertips.phe.org.uk/profile/health-profiles/data#page/0/gid/1938132701/pat/6/par/E12000003/ati/101/are/E06000010 Amount of homeless people in Hull – https://www.yorkshirepost.co.uk/news/revealed-the-scale-of-homelessness-in-each-area-of-yorkshire-1-8845828 Change 4 Life’s target audience are those who need to improve their health and wellbeing. They target these people by showing advertisements that show how an improved lifestyle can improve you such as showing that a reduced amount of food you eat for meals can make you slimmer and improve your athleticism.  – https://youtu.be/gj27HKOSVDI D1 – analysis of data obtained during and after promotion to evaluate outcomes against original objectives – https://www.thensmc.com/resources/showcase/change4life D 3 –  ‘The theory believes that behavioural intentions depend on motivation and the ability to control their behaviour.’ – theory of planned behaviour D4 – school lunches https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/788884/School-food-in-England-April2019-FINAL.pdf https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/786338/School_Food_Standards-poster.pdf https://reproductive-health-journal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12978-016-0255-4 A4 – https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/the-health-and-care-system-explained/the-health-and-care-system-explained https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Age_Concern https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Heart_Foundation https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Action_on_Smoking_and_Health https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Health_Organization https://www.un.org/un70/en/content/history/index.html https://www.nice.org.uk/about https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cancer_Research_UK  

 

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